Studies accompanied over the past few decades on the generalization of quantum mechanics, initiated in 1978 by Ruggero Maria Santilli for antimatter. An inspection of the contemporary physics literature reveals that, while matter is treated at all levels of study, from Newtonian mechanics to quantum field theory, antimatter is solely treated at the level of second quantization. For the purpose of initiating the restoration of full equivalence in the treatment of matter and antimatter in due time, and as the classical foundations of an axiomatically consistent inclusion of gravitation in unified gauge theories recently appeared elsewhere.
A classical representation of antimatter which begins at the primitive Newtonian level with corresponding formulations at all subsequent levels is presented in this paper. By recalling that charge conjugation of particles into antiparticles is antiautomorphic, the theory of antimatter is based on a new map, called isoduality, yet it is applicable beginning at the classical level and then persists at the quantum level where it becomes equivalent to charge conjugation. Santilli showed the compatibility of the theory with all available classical experimental data on antimatter. The antimatter light has negative energy with negative unit, experiences a negative curvature tensor when in a matter gravitational field and negative refractive index when propagating within a transparent matter medium. Recently Santilli constructed an antimatter telescope and detected antimatter galaxies, antimatter asteroids, annihilation of antimatter cosmic rays and Invisible Terrestrial Entities etc.
Santilli isodual theory is applicable for the antimatter with the consideration of negative values of energy, time, gravity, refractive index, momenta etc. with negative unit.